Ultracold atomic gases mixtures and molecules jesper fevre bertelsen. The experimental realization of all of these models requires techniques which go beyond standard optical lattices, e. Ultracold atoms in optical lattices derevianko group. In this paper, we prop ose a slav eboson approach for dealing with the bose. They provide a clean, tuneable system which can be engineered to. Vortex nucleation in a rotating optical lattice of ultracold atoms ross williams, brasenose college, oxford d. Ultracold atoms on optical lattices welcome to the ideals repository.
Subwavelengthwidth optical tunnel junctions for ultracold. In the case of cavity pumping, all atoms are simultane ously coupled to the same mode. This study presents the first experimental realisation of a twodimensional quasicrystalline potential for ultracold atoms. April 2004 arrays of ultracold atoms trapped by artificial crystals of light can be used in a wide variety of experiments in quantum physics imagine having an artificial substance in which you can control almost all aspects of the underlying periodic structure. The dynamics of an ultracold dilute gas of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice can be described by a bosehubbard model where the system parameters are controlled by laser light. Nonequilibrium dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices. The resulting periodic potential may trap neutral atoms via the stark shift. In general, two detection methods are used to reveal the quantum phases of ultracold gases in optical lattices. We demonstrate a novel experimental arrangement which can rotate a 2d optical lattice at frequencies up to several kilohertz. Controlling spin exchange interactions of ultracold atoms in. Artificial gauge fields with ultracold atoms in optical.
Quantum manybody dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical. These socalled optical lattices act as versatile potential landscapes to trap ultracold quantum gases of bosons and fermions. Optical lattice is formed by the interference of counterpropagating laser beams, which creates e ective potential that traps ultracold atoms. Vz one of the most important techniques in the ultracold atom toolbox is the optical lattice 1. However, since atoms are neutral and experience no lorentz force, soc does not naturally occur and must be. Download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. Maschler et al ultracold atoms in optical lattices generated by quantized light. The resulting arrangement of trapped atoms resembles a crystal lattice and can be used for quantum simulation. Quantum manybody dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
The novel experimental techniques that enable this observation include the preparation of twodimensional 2d atomic quantum gases in 2d optical lattices, pre. Ultracold atoms in optical lattices generated by quantized. If you have a disability and are having trouble accessing information on this website or need materials in an alternate format, contact web. Ultracold atoms in optical lattices offer an ideal, yet untested environment for investigating quasicrystals. An optical lattice is formed by the interference of counterpropagating laser beams, creating a spatially periodic polarization pattern.
Optical lattices are free of impurities and therefore ideally suited to study quasicrystals, enabling unprecedented access to observables that are unattainable in condensed matter systems. Ultracold atoms in optical lattices generated by quantized light fields. Many of those ideas demand experimental environments with noncubic lattice geometries. Review quantum simulations with ultracold atoms in optical lattices christian gross1 and immanuel bloch1,2 quantum simulation, a subdiscipline of quantum computation, can provide valuable insight into difficult quantum problems in physics or chemistry.
Bosonic atoms trapped in an optical lattice at very low temperatures, can be modeled by the bosehubbard model. Ultracold atoms in optical lattices hardcover maciej. In this chapter we introduce the reader to the physics of ultracold atoms trapped in crystals made of light. A rotating optical lattice for ultracold atoms oxford physics. Quantum computers for special purposes like quantum simulators are already within reach. Ultracold atoms and molecules have opened a new field for studying strong correlation effects in manybody quantum systems in a highly controllable setting. A boseeinstein condensate bec of 87rb atoms was loaded into a threedimensional optical lattice formed by the interference pattern of three orthogonal standing wave laser fields. Marko znidari c may 25, 2010 abstract in the seminar, physical principles underlying behavior of atoms in optical lattices are presented. Quantum simulation with atoms in optical lattices atoms in optical lattices electrons in a solid. Timeresolved superexchange interactions between ultracold atoms have been observed with ultracold bosons in optical double well setups using optical superlattices see fig. Quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories using.
Alternatively, one can image the intrap density distribution of atoms. Thus, for example, super uidity in a gas of ultracold atoms corresponds to superconductivity in electron gas1. Quantum state transfer with ultracold atoms in optical. Phil thesis, michaelmas 2010 ultracold atoms in optical lattices can be used to model condensed matter systems.
Particles can be released from the trapping potential and their density distribution imaged after a suitable timeofflight period. Review quantum simulations with ultracold atoms in optical. Magnetic lattices for ultracold atoms and degenerate quantum. Bosonic atoms trapped in an optical lattice at very low temperatures, can be mo deled by the bosehubbard model. Due to the close resemblance of ultracold atoms in optical lattices to solid state crystals. Ultracold polar krb molecules in optical lattices written by brian neyenhuis has been approved for the department of physics deborah jin prof.
Studies of ultracold gases in optical lattices provide a means for testing fundamental and applicationoriented quantum manybody concepts of condensedmatter physics in well controllable atomic systems. Studying collective phenomena using ultracold atoms in optical cavities brian wolin abstract the extreme precision and tunability of ultracold atom experiments allows condensed matter problems that are often intractable to the traditional condensed matter physicist to be studied in the laboratory. After the introduction, the work presented in this thesis can be divided into three major parts. Particle statistics and lossy dynamics of ultracold atoms. Atoms are trapped in optical lattice by means of the interaction between an induced electric dipole moment in an atom and electric light eld from a laser. Optical lattice is formed by the interference of counterpropagating laser beams, which creates effective potential that traps ultracold atoms. Pdf this thesis covers most of my work in the field of ultracold atoms loaded in optical lattices. Photoassociation experiments on ultracold and quantum. Besides trapping cold atoms, optical lattices have been widely used in creating gratings and photonic crystals. Vexandvgx are external trapping potentials for the atom in the excited and the. Quantum computers, though not yet available on the market, will revolutionize the future of information processing. Artificial gauge fields with ultracold atoms in optical lattices springer theses kindle edition by aidelsburger, monika. The field of quantum simulation with ultracold atoms offers a solution to this problem, namely the use of optical lattices standing waves of light.
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices precision measurements quantum information qubit quantum simulation lowdim systems 2d 1d. Particle statistics and lossy dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices j. In optical lattices, the interaction energies are much larger because the atoms are con. They are also useful for sorting microscopic particles, and may be useful for assembling cell arrays.
Vortex nucleation in a rotating optical lattice of ultracold. The combined action of trapping potentials, optical lattices and low temperature cooling techniques, provide a. Ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices university of toronto. They have been awarded with the 1997 nobel prize for s. What makes optical lattices so useful is the nearly complete control it gives us over the system. Quantum physics with ultracold atoms in optical lattices. It makes a route through the physics of cold atoms. Quantum critical behavior of ultracold atoms in twodimensional optical lattices xibo zhang, chenlung hung, shihkuang tung, cheng chin science 335, 1070 2012 55. Atoms in optical lattices with periodicities ranging from 10 to. Quantum state transfer with ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
Optical lattices provide a unique tool for simulating quantum condensedmatter physics using ultracold atoms. Studying collective phenomena using ultracold atoms in. Arrays of ultracold atoms trapped by artificial crystals of light can be used in a wide variety of experiments. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading artificial gauge fields with ultracold atoms in optical lattices springer. Such ultracold atoms in optical lattices form a completely novel and highly promising research field and. In these systems, strong interactions are routinely obtained by increasing the depth of optical lattices or utilizing feshbach resonances 15,16. The physics of ultracold atoms, ions and molecules offer unprecedented possibilities of control of quantum many body systems and novel possibilities of applications to quantum information. In this thesis, we theoretically explore the dynamics of ultracold atoms in op tical lattices for. Compared to free space optical lattices, quantum uncertainties of the potential and the possibility of atomfield entanglement lead to modified phase transition characteristics, the appearance of new phases or even quantum superpositions of different phases. This thesis reports the observation of quantum criticality with ultracold 3cs atoms in optical lattices. Nonequilibrium dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical. Quantum simulation using ultracold atoms in twodimensional. Optical lattices are an ideal platform for atomic experimentation. It is also the plan to put this mixture into an optical lattice henrik is currently.
Jun ye date the nal copy of this thesis has been examined by the signatories, and we nd that both the content and the form meet acceptable presentation standards of scholarly work in the above. Atoms are cooled and congregate in the locations of potential minima. Daley1 1department of physics and supa, university of strathclyde, glasgow g4 0ng, scotland, uk. Ultracold atoms in optical lattices in this chapter we introduce the reader to the physics of ultracold atoms trapped in crystals made of light. These lattices can be enriched by introducing lasercoupled internal atomic states 49 that can play the role of an extra synthetic dimension 1012. Quantum state transfer with ultracold atoms 2 systems extremely accessible with the possibility to address, even locally in limited and controllable regions of space, most of the system parameters. Ultracold atoms in such a rotating lattice can be used for the direct quantum simulation of strongly correlated systems under large effective magnetic fields, allowing investigation of phenomena such as the fractional quantum hall effect. Ultracold atoms in a disordered optical lattice university of illinois. Ultracold atoms provide a promising alternative platform for studying this situation 14. The interaction of atoms in the lattice can easily.
Daley1 1department of physics and supa, university of strathclyde, glasgow g4 0ng, scotland, uk 2institute for theoretical physics, eth zurich, 8093 zurich, switzerland 3institute for quantum information and matter, caltech, pasadena, ca 91125, usa. Particle statistics and lossy dynamics of ultracold atoms in. Ultracold atoms and molecules in optical lattices sciencedirect. Some of the most talented theorists in the field guide the readers through the fascinating interplay of atomic, optical and condensedmatter physics, where old and new quantum manybody phenomena appear.
Atoms in an optical lattice provide an ideal quantum system where all parameters can be controlled. Controlling spin exchange interactions of ultracold atoms. In the limit of very low temperatures, cavity field and atomic dynamics require a quantum description. Particularly fascinating is the possibility of using ultracold atoms in lattices to simulate condensed matter or even high energy physics. We study the continuous zero temperature quantum phase transition from the superfluid to the mott insulator phase induced by varying the depth of the optical potential, where the mott insulator phase corresponds to. Quantum manybody dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices ultrakalte atome in optischen gittern.
Gnu scientific library reference manual network the. Although most of such gases in the nanokelvin regime are first prepared in a continuum phase, a lattice structure can be superimposed onto the particles by using optical standing wave laser fields. This system constitutes a very good realization of the bosehubbard model, which predicts a quantum phase transition between a superfluid state and a mott insulator. Quasicrystalline optical lattices for ultracold atoms. Tunable spinorbit coupling for ultracold atoms in two. Ultracold quantum gases in triangular optical lattices. Rotating optical lattices for ultracold atoms have generated a great deal of. We study an ultracold gas of neutral atoms subject to the periodic optical potential generated by a highq cavity mode. Semisynthetic zigzag optical lattice for ultracold bosons. Bragg spectroscopy of ultracold atoms loaded in an optical lattice, ana maria. This book provides a complete and comprehensive overview of ultracold lattice gases as quantum simulators.
Quantum gases in optical lattices boulder school for condensed. Probing quantum phases of ultracold atoms in optical. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading artificial gauge fields with ultracold atoms in optical lattices springer theses. Quantum simulation using ultracold atoms in twodimensional optical lattices sarah alassam, balliol college, oxford d. For instance, the recent studies have shown that, with spinor bosonic or fermionic atoms in optical lattices, it may be. Magnetic lattices for ultracold atoms and degenerate. In recent years, optical lattices have become one of the most successful tools in the largescale quantum simulation of condensedmatter problems. Phil thesis, michaelmas 2009 this thesis describes the design and implementation of a twodimensional rotating optical lattice for ultracold atoms. Optical lattices have seen utilization in such diverse. This thesis describes experiments focused on investigating outofequilibrium phenomena in the bosehubbard model and exploring novel cooling techniques for ultracold gases in optical lattices. Vortex nucleation in a rotating optical lattice of.1160 511 253 540 1239 964 378 22 666 46 883 726 977 988 1413 1430 909 1482 385 1318 1233 1208 1397 959 1364 947 1335 589 940 649 1231 1122 618